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And that is just what the ayahuasca vine contains—the beta-carbolines harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine, which are potent inhibitors of MAO-A.
These additional ingredients are most often the leaves of any of three compañeros, companion plants—the shrub chacruna, It is in fact the companion plant that contains the potent hallucinogen dimethyltryptamine.
Chemical archaeologist Juan Pablo Ogalde and his colleagues at the University of Tarapacá in Arica, Chile, analyzed the chemical composition of hairs from 32 mummies from northern Chile, dating to the Tiwanakuan expansion, looking specifically for harmine and 5-Me O-DMT (Ogalde, Arriaza, & Soto, 2009). None of the 32 mummy hair samples tested positive for 5-Me O-DMT, and two tested positive for harmine.
These results certainly appear to be inconsistent with the results of the testing of snuff powders from archeological snuff kits at other Tiwanaku sites, which tested positive for 5-Me O-DMT as well as for bufotenine and DMT.
But clearly they were important enough to be preserved, passed on for centuries, and carried by boat from South America to the Caribbean.
Much later in time, the site of Tiwanaku, recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourished as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power approximately between 7 AD.